Everyone is talking about the single biggest impact on Formula One right now and that’s the tires. We do too. Sorry for those tired of discussing tire issues but it’s like not discussing the Mosley sex scandal when it happened… just ‘ain’t gonna happen. Skip first 20 minutes if you’re bored with tire talk. Paul and I discuss the race as it finished and cover every team. Just like we always do.

An F1 fan since 1972, NC has spent over 25 years in the technology industry focusing on technology integration, AV systems integration, digital media strategies, technology planning, consulting, speaking, presenting, sales, content strategy, marketing and brand building.
  • Rapierman

    1. So, Paul, your track seems to have an identity crisis….much like Prince. ;-)

    2. I think if I had that many passes, they’d accuse me of sexual assault. :-P

    3. Front row lockout, unfortunately, does not translate to race lead. :-P

    4. I was iffy on the Massa penalty. I didn’t even see where the infraction occurred.

    5. I wonder how much improvement Button would have had if those other improvements were put on his car.

    6. Well, I suppose we have to give Van der Garde some props….as soon as we can find them.

    7. Yet another “Trulli Train”….but without Trulli this time.

    8. You’re right, it’s not your fault and it’s not our fault…it’s Pirelli and FOM’s fault.

    9. Anyone who says “it’s all the same for everyone” is putting up a strawman.

    10. No, you’re not alone, I’m right there with you.

    11. I’ve always said, “When Pirelli and FOM stop screwing up the tires, we’ll stop talking about them.”

    12. That was a big effort for Ferrari. I never thought that would have happened at that track.

    13. Grosjean had bad luck that day.

    14. At least Raikkonen was doing something.

    15. That was a surprising result for Red Bull. I may have to rethink how they’re going to do in future races.

    16. See? We’re not the only ones talking about the tires!

    17. Merc was definite proof that they can run a fast single lap but can’t last the entire race.

    18. That was definitely a good effort by Di Resta to get where he was, but I really had no idea what was going on with Suti.

    19. I think McLaren has a long way to go. Maybe they should have put all the improvements on anyway.

    20. Damn, that was harsh for Whitmarsh.

    21. Just a bad run of lark for Vergne. Yeah, if I were RBR, and I thought that Webber was retiring, I’d be looking to Riccardo.

    22. Yep, there was a Donkey candidate for Hulkenberg, but it’s not him.

    23. Not much to talk about for Williams.

    24. Caterham was a Donkey candidate, but it’s not them.

    25. Okay, gotta give Caterham props for trying to improve….again, as soon as I can find ’em.

    26. It was a decent race for Marussia, such as it was.

    27. “Pass” to Alonso right off the bat.

    28. Donkey goes to Mercedes for not getting their set-up right.

    29. Drive goes to Massa for his 9th-to-3rd performance.

    30. Congrats, MIE. Don’t forget the little people. :-D

    • MIE

      6. & 25. They need them to replace the missing wheel
      30. Especially those about 5’4″ ?

      • Rapierman

        Touche. :-D

  • Silversource

    Actually, I thought I heard Mclaren telling Perez to not destroy his tyres if he’s going to overtaken Jenson? I was watching German RTL F1, so I may be wrong.

  • Silversource

    By the way Todd, your voice impersonations are AWESOME. Just epic. Makes me laugh every time you do it. :D

    • Grantly

      Just go flat out!

  • Kevin

    Paul I think an even better example that many f1 fans will hopefully remember was Luca Badoer in 09. He went from driving laps to racing and just couldn’t really get it up to f1 standards. It is extremely tough to go from lap driving to racing speeds.

    • The drivers seat

      Good point, still don’t get the fisi deal though

  • charlie w

    Enough tire talk! What’s the alternative? Back to spec tires and in-race refueling? We all saw how well that worked. And if tires is everyone’s problem, how come no one has called out the FIA? Where are they on this issue?

    • I understand there are many folks tired of talking tires and I wouldn’t talk tires if they weren’t impacting the sport in a very major way. It’s like asking us to stop talking about aerodynamics or the dual diffuser or any other major factor of F1. Also, I find it a bit odd that the counter to our tire rants are always met with extremes to illustrate why we should never question the impact the current tires are having on the sport. Why do we immediately say “fine, then let’s just go back to the tire war or spec tires that last forever and re-fueling”. Neither of us is advocating that at all. Paul and I are clearly saying it’s fine to have a higher degradation tire but no where near this aggressive and Pirelli even agrees with us on this issue.

      Using extreme examples does little to support your love of the current tires situation. It only marginalizes both arguments. Let’s keep perspective, what Pirelli need to do is find a more durable tire compound but still retain a higher degradation level as to keep the teams frosty and have a disparity between compounds if that is what F1 wants. Personally I think the whole HD tire gambit has run its course. Let’s get back to racing, this clearly is a construct too far. IMHO

      • charlie w

        Again, I repeat, no one has called out the FIA on this issue. Pirelli is following directives from the FIA and maybe they went “too far” on their tire specs for 2013 but the final authority in the sport is not Pirelli but the FIA and the teams should had gone to them before publicly bashing Pirelli. And then, they, the FIA, should tell Pirelli about the tires.

        • You very well could be right but I am not sure it really is the FIA. I suspect it is Formula One Management or FOM actually.

  • Also, it’s clearly not the same for everybody. Not everybody has a chassis that works moderately well with the tires. Oooops, missed the algebra on this RB9 or FW35 this year boys, now spend half the season trying to come to grips with a tire and in the mean time we’ll be over here beating your brains out in the points to a level where there is no hope of recovery for you if and when you get on top of the tires issues you’re having. Sorry, 2013 is a big cock up year for you, go tell your sponsors that maybe next year you’ll get it right and have more TV time.


  • ranger

    everyone is saying that the red bull is hard on its tyres. red bull is leading the drivers and constructors. i admit 4 stops is too many but i do not want pirelli changing the tyres too drastically in the middle of the season. that would not be fair to lotus and ferrari. alonso desrves pass of the race at the start. donkey goes to lewis 2nd to 12th ouch! drive to massa 9th to 3rd very impressive. i LOVE watching kimi race this season. i hope he can wrestle the title away from red bull. great podcast guys as always.

    • UAN

      I think Alonso made the only pass of the race lol.

  • Royce Amatique

    Joe saward is on the board of cater ham cars, nothing to do with the race team.

    • I was joking mate. Although, I’d love to see Joe’s input on the team. that way we’d know that Charles Pic would be getting his grammar correct. :)

      • Royce Amatique

        If I was on the team I would not want Joe involved. I would be too afraid of getting a right bloody proper dressing down.

        Another thing that I’ve wanted to point out for a while is that Mike Gascoyne left the F1 team to become TD of caterham group ages ago, but a few times on the podcast you’ve talked about him as if he’s just gone AWOL or something.

        Loved your Marc Priestley downshift by the way.

        • I know he’s at Caterham but it’s still odd that the team wouldn’t seek his input for their F1 effort as well. Of course, I am assuming they don’t, they may get his thoughts too.

  • I just wanted to voice my support for more tire talk. Keep up the fight!

    These things suck so bad the only way they can get worse is to be a bit out of round (Shhhh, don’t give them any ideas).

  • Ab345

    I thought Will Buxton made an excellent point on his blog! Maybe it’s not the tires that are the only problem, maybe the strategies are wrong as well. Everybody is watching how Kimi is competing with Redbull conserving the tires, and are trying to use that strategy, frustrated when they can’t do it. Ferrari drove a race brilliantly to pit 4 times and drive as fast as possible. So why not drive your speed, and pit 5 times if needed. If more tires are needed per team, so be it. Will Kimi win it? Maybe not. Perhaps the tires are just too sensitive now to catch up to conserving Kimi and need to be strengthened somewhat, but I think the balance may not be too far off where teams can choose speed and stops against conservers and it could be quite interesting. I think it would reward drivers and engineers and strategies. I do think DRS cheats us all by giving the drivers an easy option for an overtake. I think they should dial back its use.

  • cconf1

    DRS — like many of us, I hate it. However, it’s not likely to go anywhere. So, what does everyone think of these changes?

    1) Cannot be used in the final 3 laps.
    2) Cannot be used to lap a car (i.e. front-runners cannot use it on back-markers).
    3) One use per lap (So, either get rid of the 2nd DRS zone, or if you keep both zones and use it on the 2st, then you can’t use it on the 2nd).
    4) Change the gap from “within 1 sec” to “from 1 sec to 2 sec, inclusive”. That might prevent the automatic pass, but could get you close enough that drafting and racecraft would actually come into play.

    • I think it could be fine with a few tweaks such as these. Good points. :)

  • UAN

    Great podcast as usual, and you guys were pretty funny with the accents!

    I’d take issue with Paul’s choice of Kimi on Vettel for pass of the race, Vettel had defended very aggressively prior to the the last few corners before the pit straight, and as Kimi was closing down on him Vettel’s engineer told him “I’m afraid you need to do your own race, you need to stay in line.” Basically to let Kimi go, and if you watch Vettel didn’t really defend on the straight and into T1 he gave more than a cars width on the inside.

    Todd–Alonso’s passes going around T3 were great, but they were on Kimi and Hamilton, not Vettel. (Who made his own brilliant pass to get by Hamilton in T1/T2).

    • UAN

      The weirdest thing after Kimi pass was how the Marussia was shadowing Vettel pretty closely for several laps. It reminds of one of the funniest things Lewis said during the race (not funny to Lewis at the time I’m sure) “I just got passed by a Williams” lol.

    • Thanks for clearing that up for me mate.

  • Julian

    Congratulations Grace

  • Dreary

    Re: ‘blocking’ penalties
    You say Jody Sheckter complained about backmarkers blocking him in quali? In the 70’s? Aren’t most of the ‘guest’ stewards drivers from that era (Sheckter had done so himself, no)? Coincidence? Methinks not

  • Christy

    Your podcast was cleansing after that horrible race, I’m glad I wasn’t the only one who didn’t know what was going on. After a commercial, I’m like “how the hell did Mass get into second!” The race coverage felt more like a race slide show than a live video feed – I had to piece the pictures together with lots of information gaps. F1 is the only sport I watch, I am a junkie, but now despite watching the races I’m still missing my fix. It is so frustrating. I feel like someone is playing a bad joke on us. Ditch DRS and fix the tires – I want real racing back, real passes with real defending.

    Keep up the bitching guys, it makes fans like me feel less alone : ((

    • Thanks Christy, we take a lot of heat for our position on this issue but we feel strongly that it is counter productive to what Formula 1’s DNA really is.

  • Oily Bo Hunk

    Did I hear “Grace got hitched”? How is Timo taking the news?!

    • Schmorbraten

      I thought I heard “Grace got engaged”?

  • Chris

    I’m an Australian listener, and have been listening to the podcast for a number of years, and have never posted. I appreciate your commentary (even if its a little US centric) and do agree with you most of the time. I have to say I felt a little let down by the way you guys went about the tire talk this week. I felt a little belittle for having a bit of a different opinion. I’ll still listen but I kind of felt like turning it off at one stage.

    I understand you feel strong about the tires, and I do agree that they are an issue, but I think that changing the tires mid season in such a drastic fashion is going to make things worse. I’m not an engineer, but from everything I have read has said that the teams that have done a good job with the tires, whether it be luck or just getting it right, could go backwards whilst other teams might benefit greatly from the change. I’m sorry but I don’t see how this is fair in anyway. I get the point that they aren’t going balls to the wall driving, but have they been in recent years? Teams have had issues in previous years getting up to temp yet they didn’t complain about the tires.

    Throwing last years tires at the teams without testing smells of disaster to me. Surely they can tweak this years tires to some sort of middle ground rather then swing pendulum a completely different direction. Formula One is really screwing it up this year! I really hope i’m wrong and there isn’t any real affect other then better racing!

    Cheers.. Chris

    • Chris

      In hindsight “belittle” is too strong of a word. Keep up the good work anyway.

    • Jack Flash (Aust)

      Hi Chris. Good to hear from you. Hope to blog with you more in future.

      I am pretty sure that neither Todd nor Paul are advocating that Pirelli should make a complete return to the 2012 Spec tyre. Neither am I.

      They do (as I) wish Pirelli to take stock of the out-of-proportion impact that their 2013 design spec tyres are having on ‘racing’, producing significant uncertaintyand notable tread delamination incidents of late, and do something proactive to curb the “bridge-too-far” complexity.

      As I understand it; this is exactly what Pirelli have said they are going to do, and I commend Pirelli for being up-front about it.

      As I have gleaned from pressers – Pirelli are going to return to a kevlar/steel band mix of structure like last years 2012 tyre, to avoid tread-flex which was contributing a lot to the delamination failures; but without returning to the prior round shoulders of 2012 tyre (still 2013 squared off). This is a reasonable compromise to cure an unreasonable failure mode of recent 2013 tyres. Secondly, they have said that this change pluse a slight tweak in compounds will make sure that a 2-3 pitstop per race target is promoted by a micro-step up durability and temperature-range tolerability. Again, not looking to return to 2012 tyres, but work with what they know from last year to cure a few Gremlins in the current 2013 design.

      All this seems reasonable to me. I know that design margins are so tight in F1, that small changes can have big impacts (team differentiating impacts), that it is not possible to say whether this small adjustment by Pirelli will have massive performance consequences on the grid pecking order. It is even harder to say with certainty, because each track introduces very signiifcant influences to the picture, as does the temperature/weather conditions for the weekend. Pirelli are very sensitive to the potential they have to bias team fortunes by over-zealous changes mid-season. They are doing the minimum change needed to get back to a 2-3 stop ‘sweet spot’.

      Sorry for the diatribe – but I am an Engineer (so that is par for the course). JF

      • Chris

        Cool thanks for your response and insight Jack Flash. I hope your right. I have a feeling it will affect the championship though.

        • Downfarce

          This is a great thread. Wasn’t sure where to respond exactly so I’ll just go to the bottom. Chris, let me say that I agree with your initial post 100%, even with the term “belittled”. It turned me off, too, though I’m sure it wasn’t meant to sound that way. I find the whole argument of “the tires totally suck and are screwing up the racing” to be besides the point. To quote Rumsfeld (sort of, and sorry for the US-centric reference), but “you go to race with the tires you have, not the tires you wish you had”…or something like that.

          Regardless of how much better we think it could be, Boullier hit the nail on the head when he said “Last year, when we were designing our 2013 car, each team received information from Pirelli and everyone did the best job they could to develop a chassis which would make best use of the tyre characteristics. We even ran with some experimental 2013 tyres at the end of last season, to assist us in confirming our development paths. As with every season, some teams do a better job than others with their designs, and some drivers are more adaptable than others to the changes of both car and tyre. It is frustrating when you’ve developed a car from a set of tyre specifications which are available to everyone – for tyres that are the same for everyone – to then be told that they are being changed mid-season.”

          I guess my point, back to your initial post, is that even though the majority people knowledgable about F1 appear to be in harmony complaining about the tires, it doesn’t mean that the proper solution is to change the game after the lights have gone out. It just isn’t a balanced solution. If F1 doesn’t like the show they’ve created, that’s tough for them, but it just seems there’s too much money involved to change the rules at will…or maybe that’s the whole problem. Regardless, there are two sides to this argument, and I wish Paul and Todd (who I have massive respect for) would acknowledge this – even though their argument may be technically correct.

        • The issue, as both you and Chris put it, is the trouble with changing mid-stream. I agree that this sucks and it will have an impact. Keep in mind, I am a Ferrari fan so I am not happy to see a tire change that would impair the Scuderia. This is the trouble F1 causes itself at the fans expense. Was anyone asking for HD tires a few years ago? Canada 2010 was an anomaly but somehow they thought this error in tire would be a great thing. I agree with Eric that all the teams had the info but only a few got it right. If you use that logic, the dual diffuser was the same situation for Brawn versus the rest of the field and the FIA let that tech stand at the expense of all the major teams. So why change tires now? If there is a precedent of this type of decision? I do understand the argument and can endorse it but my overall desire is to see F1 get back to racing and not contrivances. I would like the tires to be less of an impact on the purity of racing and let the drivers have at it. it’s a tough situation.

          • Downfarce

            Certainly can’t argue with that. Well said.
            Now tell me I’m not the first to spoof a Rummy quote on F1B. I’ll see myself out.

    • the drivers seat

      I agree with your point , I think , as I said in the podcast they could just go with only the harder option for each track, pit stops would still happen, just less of them.

  • Webber’s Anti-Stall Device

    Great podcast as usual. Keep up the great work.

    Concerning the tire talk: It’s dictating the racing these days, so we have to talk about it — but maybe just not so much.

    • This weeks news cycle was replete with talk of the tires. It is the first time all the major F1 news, blogs and Twitter accounts were finally outraged by the impact. Perhaps we could have a little credit for talking about it for so long (like after the second race) because we were ahead of the issue? Can we be afforded that nicety? :)

      • Webber’s Anti-Stall Device

        Point taken. You guys were definitely ahead of the curve on this subject.

  • Horns

    Are the tyres ruining Formula 1? Maybe. Are they ruining your podcast? Definitely. I get that you feel strongly about this, but make your point and then move on. A half hour of the same points over and over is enough to put us to sleep. I’m a long term listener, and I used to look forward to the podcast. After this week’s, not so much. Could you perhaps post a news story when you’ve either decided to talk about the race or got Hallam back?

    • Sorry you’re not enjoying the podcast mate. We feel strongly about the tires and every F1 news site, blog and Twitter account was talking about the tire impact on the Spanish Grand Prix… not sure why we’re not allowed to. I am sure there are many other F1 podcasts out there that you could listen to that you may find more appealing and may not be discussing the tires. Well….I say that but all the ones I heard were talking about the tires. Thanks for listening and I hope you continue to listen but understand if you’ve had enough of us talking about the single biggest impact on F1 in 2013. ;) We’ll try to keep the tire talk to a minimum and move it along a bit for your sake and the sake of many others like you because I know how tedious it gets when listening to people dwell too long on a subject such as talking about tires or waxing poetic about DRS forever and a day. Apologies mate.

      • Horns

        I’m not saying don’t talk about it. But for the sake of your listeners, make your point and move on – the amount of repetition in the podcast was ridiculous.

        • I got it mate. Thanks for sharing your opinion even if it isn’t one I’m not adopting quick enough. :) Appreciate your honesty.

  • Honda Hero (@Craig_Alderson)

    I don’t think it’s a random trick of numbers (like Todd mentioned) that Lotus are so good on their rubber. They have limited budget & as a result have often gone for a bit of a left field approach to their car design concept. This is historically accurate as well, for instance 2006 championship year, ok they had Mild Seven sponsorship but they weren’t in a McLaren or Ferrari budget league so what do they invent? Suspension concepts such as the mass dampener. If they’d have had the vast budgets like the others they’d have probably poured it into the proven area, aero. In the last couple of years all you need to do is watch some onboard of their cars to see that they’re doing something quite different to everyone else when you see how much travel there is and how sparks fly when loads are transferred or DRS is active…

    I believe this ENGINEERING approach is paying them dividends on the 2013 Pirelli and should they be punished now for not conforming? Perhaps we’ll see other teams looking at these areas if the media and F1 fans allow Pirelli to continue their work without this constant barrage of criticism.

    • Grantly

      Ok, this is what we should get back to talking about. Yeah, tires are no good but who’s making them work! With Lotus, are the more used to the tyre design (Square profile tyre in 13 a similar profile as the Michelin tyre that Renault used in the mid ’00s) and the suspension/aero affect this has?

      Additionally to the car side of things, I’m interested in the driving style of each driver. The way these donuts roll, the softly softly approach would seem to work. i.e. Like Kimi, I always had the impression he was a minimum input kinda driver…but riddle me this Batman, what is happening with Button (Mr “easy on the Tyres”) and why Alonso (who I always thought had an aggressive turn in approach) is doing well.

      • Honda Hero (@Craig_Alderson)

        I guess Button would admit to not being the most adaptive type of driver (a la Prost) and Alonso has recently found that he can adapt his style but I’ll be honest and agree with the podcasters on this, I really don’t think any driving style will make any impact on the deg of the Pirelli this year. I believe it’s purely down to mechanicals of the car

  • Sebring71

    You guys (and gal) already add so much to my enjoyment of F1, but the jazz chord theory analogy puts this week’s show over the top. I couldn’t agree more. It’s like a 20 minute jazz guitar solo, but not on Mixolydian or Dorian. This would require modes of the Melodramatic Minor scale. It’s like watching a guy with a tricked out Parker Fly and twin Dumble amps, noodle around on Locrian #2 (prime) and Messiaen Mode 6 (option), for 2 hours, while simultaneously burning a pallet of money.

    • LOL. I am more keen on flattening to root of any minor pentatonic scale I’m using but then that would make me more like Ferrari right? ;)

  • Julian

    I also do not enjoy the racing so much at the moment, the absurd tires plus DRS have ruined the show imho. I also wish we were not always talking about it, but how could you possibly do a podcast without discussing the burning issue of the day?
    If you tried to talk about the race without ranting about the tires you would be being dishonest to yourselves and your listeners. I say keep it real and keep giving us your honest opinion, that is why I listen.
    And now they have said they will change the tires, perhaps we can get back to ranting about DRS. It’s just because we care about this great sport.

    • Thanks for understanding. We have always talked about the pressing issues and sometimes the non-pressing issues of F1. You know what will come next right? The RB9 will start doing well and everyone will be talking about the tires again. :) Point being, the tires should be a important part of racing but not the dominant part either way. F1 shot it’s own foot by mandating that Pirelli create these tires because inevitably the pragmatic thinking never took into account the potential for situations like this. just as it hasn’t with the advanced aero with no limitations (or very little limitations) creating the problem in the first place.

  • Sizziano

    I wonder if it Ferrari could have pulled off a 1-2if it would not have been for that stupid penalty on MAS…..

  • Denis

    I know I’m a few days late, but I wanted to say that you guys complaining about the tires isn’t necessarily what’s a bit annoying. What I find frustrating is that all this moaning about the tires seems to forget the simple fact that this IS what F1 is all about. There’s a set of regulations, a tire supplier, and different race venues that require different setups and such. The team that can balance all those will be victorious. These Pirellis are not that much different from last year. Sure, there seems to be a bit more degradation. But its nowhere near from what we had last year. Remember all the graining and rubber marbles on the dirty side of the track?

    Which began the question: why all the moaning?

    There can be only one logical answer: Red Bull is complaining and ‘I’ll-throw-the-team-under-the-bus-again-if-i-want’ Vettel isn’t winning because he has to actually race people and manage tires.

    Let me give you another perspective. A really cool thing about knowing more than one language is that you can understand different perspectives. From what I’ve seen, heard and read, no one in Spain, Italy, or Latin America, especially Mexico, Brasil, or Venezuela, is complaining about the tires – or at the very least, complaining to this level.

    For example, Ferrari told Gazzetta, “”Queste anime belle dimenticano che i 4 pit stop si sono visti 2 anni fa e anche nel 2004 quando con Schumi vincemmo in Francia.”

    Which means, “All these people seem to forget that we’ve seen four pit stops two years ago and in 2004 when Schumi won in France.”

    But i think Globo Esporte in Brazil said it best, “É muito complicado prever a durabilidade porque cada corrida é diferente: o asfalto, o clima, os carros e até mesmo o estilo de direção de cada piloto. Quando Niki Lauda corria, sua maior preocupação era cuidar da caixa de marchas e dos freios”

    Which means, “It’s very hard to anticipate the durability [of tires] because each race is different: the asphalt, or the weather, or even each car and the driving style of each driver. When Niki Lauda used to race, his main worry was to save the transmission and the brakes.”

    In other words, there always be a balance between all-out performance and durability. The team that has a package that balances tires, engine, aerodynamics, suspension, driver, and track is the team that will win. So, does it really matter is they won with four stops or just one? Not really.

    Hell, even Bernie came out and blasted Perilli for bucking to Red Bull’s birching. Of course, you don’t hear any complaining from Ferrari or Lotus. Only those teams that can’t find a solution to the tire puzzle are the ones pointing fingers for their inability to figure it out.

    This reminds me of that great sarcastic quote from Senna when Prost was complaining at Spa in 1991, “Yeah, we all known that it’s never Alain’s fault. It’s always the car, or the track, or the tires, or the other drivers. It’s never his fault.”

    • the drivers seat

      To quote you “So, does it really matter is they won with four stops or just one? Not really.”
      I guess that is where we differ, I find the 4 stops make the race extremely hard to gauge who is doing what and how well, with 1 -2 stops you can really follow the pacesetters path through the race. F1 is a game of suspense rather than a “shoot as many as you can in an hour” kind of movie equivalent, at least it used to be, as Martin Brubndle said if Chelsea beat Man U 16-15 would it be better? I don’t think so. I am fully behind teh art of tyre preservation being a part of all driving but the percentage is out of whack, and it seems the art of being quite on your tyres doesn’t apply to this version of teh pirelli, it is simply a matter of the mid corner load each cars performance puts on a tyre, rather than the art of corner entry precision and efficent use of the throttle.